Quran Chaptr 2-Intro (Pt-1 Stg-1)(L–13)-درس قرآن
Introduction – Surah ‘Al-Baqarah (the Cow)
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Suratul-Baqarah is the second Chapter of Holy Qur-‘aan. It was revealed in Madinah. This Surah is the longest Chapter of Holy Qur-’aan. It contains 286 verses and 40 sections. Baqarah means “the Cow”. It has been named, ‘Al-Baqarah because an event in respect of ‘A Cow’ has been described in it.
The most important teachings regarding beliefs and deeds have been included in it. It is stated that Umar (Radi Allaahu ‘Anhu), Companion of Messenger (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him), took many years to understand this Surah. It does not mean “learning by heart”, but “learning and understanding the Commandments and Instructions mentioned in it”. An abstract of its subjects has been explained as under:
1. At first, it has been described in this Chapter that Holy Qur-’aan is Guidance for those people who fear Allah Almighty and there is a foundation of abstinence in their hearts.
2. After hearing the Commandments mentioned in Holy Qur’aan, three kinds of people will grow as it happens in the world in relation to every new movement. First, the Believers, who will have full faith in it. Second, the Infidels, who will oppose it and the third, such Hypocrites, who will show themselves as believers but actually their hearts will deny it.
3. After that, the first commandment for the entire people is that they should worship Allah only, and the Truth of Holy Qur-’aan has been proved.
4. In the fourth section, Birth of Adam (peace be upon Him) his entitlement as a vicegerent on the earth has been mentioned. Then, from fifth section to onward, recitation in respect of a big dynasty’s life “The Children of Israel” begins. Hundreds of Prophets and Messengers (peace be upon Them) were born in this dynasty. Allah Almighty narrated the circumstances of this dynasty “as a lesson to be taken” and it was also described that this nation did not remain capable of God’s viceroy due to its evil deeds and wickedness.
5. From section 5 to 15, many incidents of the history of the Children of Israel have been stated; for example, their covenants and agreements, splendor of God on the Mount Sinai, the incident of the Day of Saturday (Sabbath), the event of The Cow, circumstances of slaying the Prophets (peace be upon Them), impure efforts of enchantment, charm and magic, unfair conduct of disgracing the Prophets (peace be upon Them), false faiths about forgiveness and deliverance on the Day of Judgment etc.
6. With effect from the section-16 onward, more events and incidents in respect of the Children of Israel, birth of The Last Prophet and Messenger Muhammad (grace, glory, blessings and peace be upon Him) in Arab from the generation of Adam (peace be upon Him) have been explained. Moreover, there is also recitation on The Square Building of Makkah (Masjid ul Haraam). And the higher grades in respect of the Martyrs in the Way of Allah have been explained here.
7. In section-20, the Signs of the Power of God Almighty have been discussed along with the matters relating to the Forbidden and Lawful things.
Quran Chaptr 2-Intro (Pt-1 Stg-1)(L–14)-درس قرآن
In the twentieth Section of Surah ‘Al-Baqarah, it is commanded that what the actual Goodness is. After this section, up to the section # 26, the matters relating to inheritance, revenge, supplication, fasting, pilgrimage to Makkah, Jehad (to try and strive), sacrifice of wealth in the Way of God have been described including orders and instructions for them.
With effect from section 27, the matters of family and social life have begun, i.e. marriage, divorce, menstruation, Iddat, second marriage, bringing up and looking after the children and Haqq mahr (the money or its value incumbent on the husband) etc.
In section 32, again the matter of Jehad has been discussed. And in the example, war of Saul (peace be upon Him) against Goliath has been described. God Almighty commanded: Victory or defeat does not depend; either on war equipment or decrease and increase of the manpower. Usually small Armies overcome large Armies.
In 34th Section, there is ‘Aayat ul Kursii, in which many Attributes of Allah Almighty like; the Living, the Eternal etc. have been mentioned. And that there is no compulsion for anyone to accept Islam because its excellence, signs and proofs are obvious.
After that some instructive events in respect of Prophet Abraham (peace be upon Him) have been discussed here. Up to the section-39, commandments about Alms-giving and charity, abstinence, prohibition from usury and interest, laws and instructions regarding evidence and some principles of trade have been explained.
At the end of this Surah in section-40, summary of Belief and Islam have been described including a perfect supplication. Last words of this supplication are, “Fan-sur-naa-‘alal-Qawmil-kaafiriin” (So give us victory over the disbelieving folk). It is the result of the invitation by Holy Qur-’aan, as though, which nation will grow with the teachings of Holy Qur’aan, by means of such nation,the Law of God will overcome on the infidelity. Consequence of the Believers of God Almighty and infidels has been narrated here that the believers will succeed, whereas the infidels will fail and subdued, as the end of the Surah is; just like its beginning.
It should not be forgotten that this abstract is only to show a concept of its subjects. Otherwise, it is impossible for anyone, to summarize the facts and excellence of the Speech of God in a few words.
We should think and care for the Commandments and Instructions of God Almighty, mentioned in this Surah. We should understand its philosophy and grip up our loins to act upon its instructions. Our Lord! Give us knowledge and power for it.